H. pylori DNA has been amplified from atherosclerotic plaques and the oral cavity for years, but the significance of H. pylori in these locations is still debated. Many have reasonably questioned whether H. pylori truly colonizes those sites. For example, macrophages might have phagocytized H. pylori in the stomach and later traveled to atherosclerotic plaques. Similarly, oral H. pylori might be due to gastric reflux. Additional testing has been performed in laboratories worldwide, using a variety of techniques. H. pylori has been cultured from root canal samples, and occasionally from plaque[63,64], but is most often identified by PCR. The presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity correlates with its presence in the stomach[65-67], but oral H. pylori does not correlate with poor oral hygiene[68,69]. On the other hand, several studies suggest that untreated periodontal disease increases the risk of becoming re-infected after H. pylori eradication. Similarly, reducing the number of oral H. pylori using antiseptic mouthwash and/or periodontal treatment improves the eradication rate following antibiotic therapy. It is therefore possible that H. pylori gains a toehold in the mouth before colonizing the stomach and that the stomach can be reinfected by oral H. pylori.
CDC conducted whole genome sequencing of C. auris specimens from countries in the regions of eastern Asia, southern Asia, southern Africa, and South America. Whole genome sequencing produces detailed DNA fingerprints of organisms. CDC found that isolates within each region are quite similar to one another, but are relatively different across regions. These differences suggest that C. auris has emerged independently in multiple regions at roughly the same time.
TE fistula often occurs with another birth defect known as esophageal atresia. The esophagus is a tube that leads from the throat to the stomach. With esophageal atresia, the esophagus does not form properly while the fetus is developing before birth, resulting in two segments; one part that connects to the throat, and the other part that connects to the stomach. However, the two segments do not connect to each other.
Sometimes, a narrowed esophagus can be widened or dilated with a special procedure done while the child is under general anesthesia. In other cases, another operation may be necessary to open up the esophagus so food can pass to the stomach properly. 59ce067264